Sunday, March 15, 2020
Jonathan Letterman Jonathan Letterman was a surgeon in the U.S. Army who pioneered a system of caring for the wounded during battles of the Civil War. Prior to his innovations, the care of wounded soldiers was fairly haphazard, but by organizing an Ambulance Corps Letterman saved many lives and changed forever how the military operated. Lettermans accomplishments did not have much to do with scientific or medical advances, but with ensuring that a solid organization for caring for the wounded was in place.Ã After joining the Army of the Potomac of General George McClellan in the summer of 1862, Letterman began preparing the Medical Corps. Months later he faced a colossal challenge at the Battle of Antietam, and his organization for moving the wounded proved its worth. The following year, his ideas were utilized during and after the Battle of Gettysburg. Some of Lettermans reforms had been inspired by changes instituted in medical care by the British during the Crimean War. But he also had invaluable medical experience learned in the field, during a decade spent in the Army, mostly at outposts in the West, before the Civil War. After the war, he wrote a memoir that detailed his operations in the Army of the Potomac. And with his own health suffering, he died at the age of 48. His ideas, however, lived on long after his life and benefited the armies of many nations. Early Life Jonathan Letterman was born December 11, 1824, in Canonsburg, in western Pennsylvania. His father was a doctor, and Jonathan received an education from a private tutor. He later attended Jefferson College in Pennsylvania, graduating in 1845. He then attended medical school in Philadelphia. He received his M.D. degree in 1849 and took the examination to join the U.S. Army. Throughout the 1850s Letterman was assigned to various military expeditions which often involved armed skirmishes with Indian tribes. In the early 1850s he served in Florida campaigns against the Seminoles. He was transferred to a fort in Minnesota, and in 1854 joined an Army expedition that traveled from Kansas to New Mexico. In 1860 he served a stint in California.Ã On the frontier, Letterman learned to tend to the wounded while having to improvise in very rough conditions, often with inadequate supplies of medicine and equipment. Civil War and Battlefield Medicine After the outbreak of the Civil War, Letterman returned from California and was briefly posted in New York City. By the spring of 1862 he was assigned to an Army unit in Virginia, and in July 1862 he was appointed medical director of the Army of the Potomac. At the time, Union troops were engaged in McClellans Peninsula Campaign, and military doctors were grappling with the problems of disease as well as battle wounds. As McClellans campaign turned into a fiasco, and the Union troops retreated and began to return to the area around Washington, D.C., they tended to leave behind medical supplies. So Letterman, taking over that summer, faced a challenge of resupplying the Medical Corps.Ã He advocated for the creation of an ambulance corps. McClellan agreed to the plan and a regular system of inserting ambulances into army units began. By September 1862, when the Confederate Army crossed the Potomac River into Maryland, Letterman commanded a Medical Corps that promised to be more efficient than anything the U.S. Army had seen before. At Antietam, it was put to the test. In the days following the great battle in western Maryland, the Ambulance Corps, troops specially trained to retrieve wounded soldiers and bring them to improvised hospitals, functioned fairly well. That winter the Ambulance Corp again proved its worth at the Battle of Fredericksburg. But the colossal test came at Gettysburg, when the fighting raged for three days and casualties were enormous. Lettermans system of ambulances and wagon trains dedicated to medical supplies worked fairly smoothly, despite countless obstacles. Legacy and Death Jonathan Letterman resigned his commission in 1864, after his system had been adopted throughout the U.S. Army. After leaving the Army he settled in San Francisco with his wife, whom he had married in 1863. In 1866, he wrote a memoir of his time as medical director of the Army of the Potomac. His health began to fail, and he died on March 15, 1872. His contributions to how armies prepare to attend to the wounded in battle, and in how the wounded are moved and cared for, had great influence over the years.
Friday, February 28, 2020
REPORT TOPIC LAW - Assignment Example Conflict of Laws or Private International Law covers cases where a foreign element intrudes, raising questions as to the application of foreign law or the role of foreign courts (Shaw, 1). Legal Positivism suggests that international law is not law at all because there is no true governing body that imposes the law and enforces its obedience. Contrast this with the laws of a State where the State itself is tasked with the promulgation and enforcement of the law. Instead, International Law is enforced by agreement between parties to a treaty, convention or international organization. For example, states that are parties to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 commit themselves to follow the rules of war set forth in those Conventions. State parties to the Kyoto Protocols bind themselves to the provisions of those environmental-safeguard protocols. Even the United Nations and its subordinate bodies exist because the UN State Parties signed or acceded to the UN Charter to become members of th e United Nations. Aside from Treaties and Conventions, which are essentially multilateral treaties, there are two other sources of international law. They are international custom and general principals of law recognized by civilized nations (ICJ Statute Art 38).
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
Risk Analysis and Ethical Considerations - Essay Example As the discussion there are three main events under this theory. First all actions must be judged from the consequence of the actions. Secondly, the judgment is about the quantum of happiness these actions have generated. Lastly, each personÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare is equally important and actions must be directed to this objective. There are two sub theories of Utilitarianism. Van Wyck explains that under Act Utilitarianism theory the view taken is that a right action is one that is also chosen by another individual, and the common intention is to produce at least the same good result. Under this theory an action is taken for the larger good even if it means abandoning or ignoring a rule or set of rules. In other words ends justify the means. This study stresses that the proponents of the other theory called Rule Utilitarianism believe firmly in observing rule and not encroaching on others happiness even if the happiness of a larger group is likely to be affected. This means that rules are meant to be followed to preserve sense and balance in a society. The other group called Deontological theory hold that obligations must be followed irrespective of consequences. Deontologists insist that actions are morally in the wrong not because of their consequences, but because fundamentally these actions are a moral violation (Boxill). Morally right mans approved by God and morally wrong means disapproved by God. The will of God is the arbiter of right or wrong. In 1907 Henry Sidgwick expanded the Greatest Happiness principle to conclude that welfare of the people was more paramount than mere happiness. He felt that utilitarianism could be used to balance the morality of Ã¢â¬Å"common sense:Ã¢â¬ In effect Sidgwick attempted to bring utilitarianism into mainstream thinking of other less philosophical theories on ethics.
Friday, January 31, 2020
Write about Japan - Essay Example The emperor appoints an executive prime minister. Shinzo Abe is the current premier of Japan. The capital city of Japan is Tokyo. This paper explains the economic changes that took place after the Second World War that turned Japan into an economic hub. The Second World War extensively destroyed properties in Japan and thousands of people lost their lives. Industries were not spared either and those that were running lacked industrial inputs. Japan had lost almost 25% of its wealth after the war (Osubo, 4). In 1952, Japan could have been categorized as an underdeveloped state. From 1952 to 1968, Japan adopted strategies that transformed it from a less developed country to an economic powerhouse only behind the United States of America. The availability of dedicated labor is among the factors that led to the growth of Japan to an industrialized nation. The young generation was migrated from the villages to towns to provide the necessary workforce that was required in the industries. The government also invested heavily in private industries and its policy to adopt new technologies from other nations led to the growth of industries such as the automobile industry. The government introduced local banks to offer financial assistance to the local business men to enhance their businesses. The return of Japan into the international stage allowed the international monetary fund to boost its economy. The government also encouraged locals to do savings that provided funds to be invested in the various sectors. The savings allowed Japan not to borrow from other countries with high interests. The education system was changed and modeled to resemble the American system where students were required to attend three years elementary and six years of high school education. When Prime Minister Hayato took office in 1960, he promised to double the economy in ten years. In fact, that was achieved in seven years. Other plans to grow the economy were
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"The StormÃ¢â¬ may be interpreted as a condemnation of societal constraints upon feminine sexuality. As Calixta Ã¢â¬Å"unfastened her white sacque at the throatÃ¢â¬ she was taking off chains of oppression of her sexuality. When Calixta Ã¢â¬Å"nervously began to gather up from the floor the lengths of a cotton sheet which she had been sewingÃ¢â¬ she is putting her duties away for pleasure and is finally going to fulfill her birthright for passionate sex. In Ã¢â¬Å"The StormÃ¢â¬ Calixta is a shameless married woman who Ã¢â¬Å"lifted her pretty chin in the air and laughed aloudÃ¢â¬ after committing an adulteress act. Kate Chopin had a unique style of writing for her time. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In CalixtaÃ¢â¬â¢s time, showing of the neck and chest was inappropriate and forbidden. So when Ã¢â¬Å"she unfastened her white sacque at the throatÃ¢â¬ she is expressing that she is a sexual being and is defying against restraints on feminine sexuality. Kate Chopin was a daring writer. In the time of the composition of the storm women were considered property and expected to accept their housewife duties. Women could not freely express their sexuality and Kate was out to change that. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As Calixta Ã¢â¬Å"nervously began to gather up from the floor the lengths of a cotton sheet which she had been sewingÃ¢â¬ she is rebelling against traditional 1890Ã¢â¬â¢s womanhood. Women were not permitted to feel sexual. By putting it away she was lowering the priority of her duties for sex. Sex was something she was unfamiliar to and not something married women did for pleasure. Calixta is going all out! Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When Alcee rides off, he smiles and Calixta Ã¢â¬Å"lifted her pretty chin in the air and laughed aloud.Ã¢â¬ This action was a proclamation of her freedom from sexual oppression. Calixta was prepared for sex and embraced it. She is not ashamed of her act and she fulfilled her birthright for passionate sex. Calixta is a loose woman?
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
In the novel Of Human Bondage, the main character, Philip Carey, has a myriad of people whom are very influential in his life. William Somerset Maugham portrays Philip as having three women in his life that are of great importance to PhilipÃ¢â¬â¢s character. These three women are Mildred Rogers, Norah Nesbit, and Sally Athelny. Mildred is a negative influence on Philip whereas the other two women serve as positive influences in PhilipÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Of the three, Philip loves Mildred the most, though Mildred loves him not. Mildred is a negative influence on Philip. Though he loves her, she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t love him back. She is grateful toward Philip and rewards him with various degrees of affection. This forebodes the fact that she becomes a prostitute later on in the novel. While with Philip, Mildred distracts him from studying and causes him to spend all his money to take her out to eat and see musicals. This causes Philip to fail his two very important medical examinations. Mildred is a snobby, stupid, callous, shallow, vain, and selfish woman. Aware of PhilipÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings for her, she takes advantage of him. She accepts his gifts and seeks his protection, but thwarts his affection. Philip forgives her for her deceitfulness and helps her when she is in trouble. In return for PhilipÃ¢â¬â¢s love, kindness and generosity, she gives him pain, abuse, and misery. She proves her heartless nature when she runs away with Emil Miller, has an affair with Griffiths, and destroys PhilipÃ¢â¬â¢s home. She also abandons her infant to the care of a stranger in order to enjoy life. This demonstrates her selfish nature. Mildred seems to be PhilipÃ¢â¬â¢s foil. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re so different from one another that Mildred doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even understand Philip. PhilipÃ¢â¬â¢s generosity, kindness, and love cannot be understood by such a selfish, vicious, hateful woman. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a wonder how Philip is bonded to this human anti-epitome. Philip chose Mildred because she is the type of woman that was a challenge for him. He had just begun medical school and was feeling bored when suddenly he came upon this ill-mannered slut of a waitress in a tea shop. From that moment on, he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get enough of her. He always tried to get back at her but never quite could. It was as if he was doomed to spend the rest of his life bonded to her. It was too much to bear for him. Her indifferent attitude toward him drove him mad over the brink of obsession. He tortured himself to try andÃ get a woman that he could never have and she would never love him back. He was even willing to marry her to get back at her for all the evil she inflicted upon him. Ph ilip finally breaks through the bonds of Ã¢â¬Å"loveÃ¢â¬ and sees Mildred for who she really is Ã¢â¬â a conniving, callous prostitute. Norah Nesbit is another influential woman in PhilipÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Though Philip doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t love Norah, she is a positive influence in his life nevertheless. Norah pampers Philip using her motherly instincts and encourages him to do what he can for himself: go on vacation to take a break, and study hard for school to pass his exams. She is successful in convincing Philip to focus on his studies rather than herself. Therefore when heÃ¢â¬â¢s with her, he passes all three exams without any trouble and has earned his vacation that he is reluctant to go on, but is persuaded by thoughtful Norah to do so. Unlike Mildred, Norah appreciates Philip and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow him to waste his money. Philip intentionally chose NorahÃ¢â¬â¢s ilk because Norah is nurturing, kind-hearted, and loving. Philip chooses her in his time of need, after he is hurt by the harshness and pain that Mildred has inflicted upon him. She ameliorates him back to life after the thought and sight of Mildred has tormented him for many dreary months. Sally, the third and final influential woman in his life, helps Philip establish his identity in the world. The eldest child of Mr. Athelny, she is sensible, maternal, pretty, charming, and responsible. She is the pride of her family and wins the heart of everyone with her pleasant manners and warmth, including Philip. Sally falls for PhilipÃ¢â¬â¢s simplicity and unassuming manner, but does not force herself on him. She patiently waits for him to recognize her appeal. While Philip vacations with the Athelnys in Kent, he begins to notice Sally and he realizes that he is attracted to her. He begins to see her regularly and decides to spend the rest of his life with her. She accepts his proposal of marriage. Sally is a contrast to Mildred. SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s presence calms Philip, while MildredÃ¢â¬â¢s presence troubles him. His passion for Mildred had disrupted his life and career, but SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s love gives him hope for a bright future. Philip learns to love Sally, though not like Mildred, and she loves him back. Therefore Sally is the best woman for Philip since they both love one another. Sally is there when Philip needsÃ her. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s not pushy or demanding, so Philip chooses her because he needs someone of her ilk to depend upon after Mildred ruins his life yet again by making him homeless and penniless.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Jacob Romo Miller Eng 102 Jun, 10 2015 Effects of Technology The invention of the internet will always be remembered as one of the greatest creation of all time. The internet allowed communication and the accessibility to a seemingly endless about of information throughout the whole world, instantaneously. The anticipation of a loved oneÃ¢â¬â¢s letter through the mail was no longer needed after the internet and the birth of social media. Like many great inventions there are always negative repercussions that were not expected within the outcome. The internet has improved humanity in any ways but the negatives effect over whelm the positive. Internet technology has allowed cybercrimes and social media to negatively impact humanity. The internet is an extremely helpful invention but it has allowed access to too much dangerous information. The history of the internet begins in 1962 when J.C.R Licklider wrote memos about his Intergalactic Network concept; he proposed the idea that computers can talk to one another. In 1969 the first message was sent using the network ARPANET from a computer at University of California, Los Angeles to Stanford University. The message sent was the five letter word Ã¢â¬Å"LoginÃ¢â¬ only a portion of the message managed to get through to Stanford University but this proved any nonbelievers. The biggest movement towards the internet use today began in 1992 when a computer programmer named Tim Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web. (Spicer Dag) Two decadesShow MoreRelatedThe Invention Of The Internet Essay1346 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWith the invention of the internet, many things in our life have gotten much easier. No longer do papers have to be solely researched in the library and facts can be looked up in a momentÃ¢â¬â¢s notice. As it is said, we have the world at our fingertips. 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The words of that quote are those that speak the truth. During the last few years of the twentieth century, the world was intrigued with the invention of the Internet. Without the Internet, the world that we know would really cease to function. The Internet is important to everyone in some way orRead MoreThe Invention Of Internet Has Changed Our World2129 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesdue to the internet. Many people uses the internet today, but they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how it works, why was it created or who invented it? Even though everything from our banking, business, shopping, communication, dating, entertainment, education and the most basic task are done on the internet. However one can argue thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the best part of the internet we donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to understand it on technology, social, and physiological level to use it. However no one can argue that the invention of internet has changed