Thursday, September 3, 2020

Social determinants of health in the context of globalization and modernization Essay Example

Social determinants of wellbeing with regards to globalization and modernization Essay The wonder of globalization is as old as sorted out trade. In its initial days, the riches created by globalization was restricted to a little tip top network. Be that as it may, as methods of transport, correspondence and remote business association propelled it has prompted continued expectation for everyday comforts upgrades in numerous modern social orders. This has happened to the degree that nowadays the word globalization has gotten equal with effectiveness, financial chance and by and large human security. While such advancements are mostly obvious there is additionally another side to the story. While the propelled countries of hemispheric West have had favorable outcomes because of globalization, key human improvement boundaries of most Third World nations have fallen proportionately. Consequently, it is hard to introduce a sweeping perspective on the effect of globalization on general wellbeing. Considering this reality, this paper will endeavor to achieve a nuanced compre hension of globalization’s generally speaking impact on general wellbeing results over the world. This is finished by method of examining real grant regarding the matter. The litmus test for the proficiency and viability of any general wellbeing framework is its presentation in an emergency circumstance. Common social orders have generally expected fundamental insurances at the hour of these emergencies. Such crises likewise test a government’s genuine capacity to act under tension. As it were, â€Å"they characterize a state’s ability to ensure its populace while presenting its vulnerabilities to political change in the fallout of ineffectively oversaw crises† (Gorin, 2002). With regards to financial globalization at the turn of the new thousand years, like never before previously, the overall population request straightforwardness and responsibility in worldwide general wellbeing frameworks during clinical and catastrophic events. To check the power of general wellbeing frameworks in this new globalization worldview, we have to consider ongoing instances of intense general wellbeing crises. The Indian Ocean tidal wave of 2004 an d Hurricane Katrina are especially applicable to this examination. We will compose a custom article test on Social determinants of wellbeing with regards to globalization and modernization explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom exposition test on Social determinants of wellbeing with regards to globalization and modernization explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom exposition test on Social determinants of wellbeing with regards to globalization and modernization explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer â€Å"Hurricane Katrina was novel in that the U.S. government acknowledged reciprocal and multilateral alleviation help, an uncommon occasion in present day times. In the fallout of the Indian Ocean tidal wave, enough conventional outside assets kept the general wellbeing crisis from forming into an auxiliary debacle. Fast organization of Red Cross Movement crisis reaction groups kept any significant episode of infection from debased water and sewage. It was no mishap that, when the tidal wave hit, a solid general wellbeing accentuation from national and global guide impeded further deaths.† (Burkle, 2006) Thus, in the examples of Hurricane Katrina and the Indian Ocean tidal wave the upside of a comprehensively organized general wellbeing game plan approaches. Further, because of globalization interior security, authority of the state and agreement of general wellbeing have all become interwoven. An a valid example was the SARS pandemic that broke a couple of years prior. In spite of the effective reaction to the previously mentioned cataclysmic events, the SARS pandemic â€Å"called into question the limit of the general wellbeing framework to address such difficulties, particularly when general wellbeing is undermined by financial globalization pressures† (Burkle, 2006). This proceeds to demonstrate the underlying attestation that the effect of globalization on general wellbeing must be assessed dependent upon the situation. Speculations are generally not exact and on occasion deluding. Further on the drawback, there have been orderly patterns to globalization, to be specific their backhanded impact on social determinants of wellbeing in the Third World. To detailed, general wellbeing frameworks have not scaled up to address the difficulties of expanding urbanization, which is an immediate result of globalization. The procedures of urbanization, industrialization and globalization directly affect issues, for example, maintainable turn of events and general wellbeing (Eisenberg, et. al, 2007). Social determinants of wellbeing, for example, land area, sex, age, ethnic beginning, instruction level, administration and financial status are for the most part factors that decide a nation’s general wellbeing framework. Measurements from World Health Report 2001 backings the veracity of this connection. Creating countries keep on falling behind in way of life boundaries, which propose that globalization has had no huge effect on social determinants of wellbeing in creating countries. Indeed, even as society appreciates innovation supported interconnectivity, a huge number of individuals are as yet living under unfriendly wellbeing conditions (Taylor, 2002). While the rich countries are getting more extravagant, complete wraps of sub-Saharan individuals despite everything face neediness, appetite, lack of education and danger of irresistible malady on an everyday premise. The greatest danger to individuals in this locale is HIV/AIDS, an infirmity that has expends a million l ives at regular intervals in Africa, with sub-Saharan African countries enduring the worst part of this scourge. This locale, as indicated by measurements discharged by Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, is home to 70% of individuals tainted with HIV around the world. Such numbers sell out the socio-political real factors of the locale, with its specialist inability to put resources into general wellbeing ventures (Kazatchkine, 2007). A large number of current scourges, including AIDS, polio, and jungle fever may in a couple years’ time even out. Be that as it may, for a creating country, new difficulties as malignancy, street mishaps and cardiovascular sickness will rise. Further, albeit adequate advancement has been made in checking newborn child death rates in the Third World since the 1980s, instances of effectively infectious scourges like tuberculosis have not declined. This proceeds to show that the advantages of globalization have not arrived at all edges of the world. The afflictions referenced in the accompanying table and the mortalities that outcome from them for the most part relate to creating and immature nations of the world. Top 10 Leading Causes of Death (2000 evaluations) Positioning Specific Cause Percent of Total Deaths 1 coronary illness 12.4 2 Cerebrovascular malady (stroke) 9.2 3 Lower respiratory contaminations 6.9 4 Unintentional wounds 6.1 5 HIV/AIDS 5.3 6 Chronic obstructive pneumonic 4.5 malady (for example emphysema, incessant bronchitis) 7 Perinatal conditions 4.4 8 Diarrheal maladies 3.8 9 Digestive maladies 3.5 10 Tuberculosis/lntentional wounds 3.0/3.0 Source: The World Health Report 2001 (Geneva: The World Health Association, 2001) Indeed, even the previous head of the World Health Organization concurs that there is a separation between riches creation and more extensive access to general wellbeing because of globalization. This selection is from a discourse by Dr. Gro Brundtland, the previous Director-General of the World Health Organization, at the World Economic Forum on January 29, 2001, underscores this point. â€Å"Technologies are spreading, correspondence is around the world, individuals realize what is accessible, but the emotional holes and absence of access become more prominent and more prominent. We should view the world as a mutual duty so we manage the holes and help those advances become accessible for the individuals who don’t approach. That’s the best way to shield globalization from turning out to be truly unhealthy.† (Brundtland, 2001) Additionally, Public wellbeing specialists over the world have focused more on such pediatric zones as polio, hunger, jungle fever, and so forth and have gained great ground. For instance, there is now proof that individuals are living longer lives over the financial range. The drawback is â€Å"exposure to various new wellbeing dangers all the more regularly connected with mature age, to be specific malignant growth and coronary illness. In India, for instance, passings from coronary episodes, malignancy, and other non-transferable sicknesses are anticipated to twofold from 4 million every year in 1990 to 8 million per year in 2020† (Levy Sidel, 2006). Such is the Catch 22 of globalization that during a similar period, family-arranging activities have discovered wide acknowledgment. Over the most recent two decades, the use of prophylactic gadgets has expanded exponentially in numerous immature nations. The birth rates have declined by 15% therefore. This can have negative ra mifications for these countries in the long haul. In 10 years or two they may face the equivalent â€Å"demographic imbalance† that the western world by and by faces. This would imply that social orders later on will have excessively high level of old people who don't add to the development of economy (Levy Sidel, 2006).

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Poverty and Lifeboat Ethics Essay

An acclaimed Chinese axiom goes: â€Å"Give a man a fish and he will eat for a day; show him how to fish and he will eat for the remainder of his days.† Although this insightful counsel was given a huge number of years prior, these days appears as though no ground-breaking or rich government on Earth comprehends that sentence. Garrent Hardin, creator of â€Å"Lifeboat Ethics: The Case Against Helping the Poor† show us a legitimate point of view on how the rich nations on the planet, by giving food and cash, rather than helping poor nations escape their hopelessness, cause more craving and difficulty. What's more, he reveals to us that overpopulation in poor nations ought to be controlled soon, or the present circumstance will turn appalling quick. In spite of the fact that Hardin’s proof is practically unquestionable, his position isn't. I comprehend why the creator accepts that helping destitute individuals is an ill-conceived notion yet he isn’t taking a gander at numerous others sides of the circumstance. Toward the start, my response was the inverse. I was completely persuaded by Hardin’s hypothesis. I frantically looked for a spot inside a â€Å"lifeboat!† But subsequent to examining the paper in class, and hearing myself rehash Hardin’s words that express his impassion about destitute individuals, and furthermore reconsidering his proposal in which needy individuals don’t get an opportunity for a superior life, I changed my position. I can’t bolster those thoughts in light of the fact that in my own perspective, they are bogus. It is simply false. A few nations and a few social orders previously rolled out an improvement. A few nations like South Korea, Singapore and China have broken the neediness cycle. We shouldn’t be so contrary and we should recall that even the most unfortunate individuals on earth have creative mind, thoughts, convictions and a basic need to change their own universe. Notwithstanding, I believe that the appropriate response is inside Hardin’s theory as well. Destitute individuals don’t need food and garments just in instances of crisis. Rather, they need a couple of rich governments keen on giving them devices and approaches to improve their economies, to build up their thoughts and to utilize their imaginative personalities. Without that little assistance all life in this planet will vanish. In this way, helping the poor is additionally a method of helping every other person, even rich individuals. Furthermore, here Hardin’s contemplations are important: â€Å"Without a genuine world government, controlled generation and the utilization of accessible assets, the sharing ethic of the spaceship is impossible.† (Lifeboat Ethics: The Case Against Helping the Poor. Pg. 310.) If the most unfortunate pulverize their normal assets, the results will be for everybody, paying little mind to how much each has. All in all, I think Hardin is right when he gets some information about the future on Earth, in the event that we take insights and dissect their outcomes for the year 2050. In any case, his situation against helping needy individuals and attempting to dispense with them from the essence of the Earth isn't right. I have faith in a genuine world, where rich nations utilize their improvement innovation and their solid, very much fed brains to diminish the level of destitution on the planet, and where everybody wins the option to live in this, our planet Earth.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Richard Attenborough's Gandhi Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Richard Attenborough's Gandhi - Essay Example The film additionally serves to uncover the outrages of the pilgrim venture in India. Along these lines, not exclusively does the film mirror the counter pioneer sentiments of the scholarly people of the universe of the seventies and the eighties, it likewise shows the crowd the farsightedness of Mahatma Gandhi, who understood the monetary impacts of the venture on the individuals of the nation. A few parts of the life of the man are talked about in the story, which don't discover notice in customary accounts. In this regard, the film is not the same as different movies on the man, in that it doesn't look to praise him carelessly. It discusses the Mahatma as an individual who had his very own few shortcomings. The film discusses the man in his abilities as a legislator, a social reformer, a spouse and a companion. It likewise discusses the commitments of Christian evangelists in the improvement of his way of thinking of life. A large number of these parts of his life were untold befo re the arrival of this film. Most definitely, the film can likewise, from various perspectives, be viewed as a recorded archive. The film starts with the death of Gandhi that is trailed by a portrayal of an amazing occasions that went before it. The initial serves to feature the incongruity of the life of the Mahatma where he is slaughtered by the very individuals whom he had served. The occasion has a lot a bigger number of subtleties to it than the extent of the film permits it to delineate. The ascent of Hindutva and the commotion for a Hindu country which Gandhi had dismissed had prompted the development to disappointment among certain areas of the Hindu society. Since the film tries to delineate the life of Gandhi, it doesn't go into these subtleties. It uncovers the crevices inside the general public that Gandhi had tried to join together and free. The disappointment of peacefulness as a way of thinking is alluded to here. In a general public as mind boggling as the one that o ne saw in India during the 1940s where individuals of different races and religions lived respectively, there could have been nobody stop arrangement. This likewise is predictable with the movie’s point of delineating Gandhi as a human and not as very nearly an awesome savior, as he is regularly seen by students of history and columnists the same. The film at that point proceeds onward to Gandhi’s life in South Africa where he was a legal advisor. The scene where he is lost a train on account of his racial having a place is one of the most significant scenes of Gandhi’s life and he himself had frequently said as much. The seeds of revolt that had started to create inside him could be followed to that occasion. He comprehended that segregation dependent on race should have been halted for the social and financial improvement of minorities. The resulting improvements in South Africa where Gandhi assembles the non-white individuals to challenge the imbalances in th e general public is archived in a way that is emotional and might not have clung to correct depictions of what occurred during those occasions. Be that as it may, the bigger subtleties of the occasion are as per what students of history have expounded on it. The birthplace of the hypotheses of peacefulness that Gandhi had created was in South Africa where Gandhi had seen the remorseless essence of imperialism and the brutality that went with it. He gave this type of dissent and obstruction the name Satyagraha. This structure was committed to the comprehension of truth and the film uncovers the ways that Gandhi takes as he continued looking for this reality. The

Tuesday, June 9, 2020

Is Drop in Foreign Student Visas Due to Immigration Policy

According to State Department data, the number of visas given to foreign students was noticeably lower last year after stricter immigration policies were implemented. This has added to the financial challenges that some US colleges and universities are experiencing. Foreign schools have increased their competition with their American counterparts, and some foreign governments have decreased the amount of financial aid they give to their students studying abroad. However, immigration lawyers and school administrators state that President Trump’s immigration policies are making it more difficult for foreigners who want to go to school here. Those who do apply face tougher scrutiny than ever before. The State Department issued 393,573 student (F-1) visas during the year that ended September 30, 2017. This was down 17% from the prior year, and almost 40% from 2015, which was the year with the highest number of F-1 visas issued. This decrease was seen most clearly among Indian students, with a 28% drop from last year. Indian students represent the second largest population of foreign students at US colleges. China, which sends the largest number of its students to US colleges, experienced a 24% drop in visas. However, much of this decrease goes back to a 2014 change in visa terms for Chinese students. Rather than issuing 1-year visas, Chinese students now get 5-year visas. This means that although there are fewer students renewing their visas, there may not be fewer students. If the decrease in Chinese student visas is not included in the calculation, the total drop in visas from 2016 to 2017 was 13%. Colleges and universities like having foreign students on their campuses. They say that these students help make the college experience more culturally diverse for all of their students. Foreign students also assist the schools’ bottom lines. Nonresident students can pay three times as much as local students at public universities. However, some American students complain that non-US students not only take their places at colleges, but also later take their jobs. One of President Trump’s campaign promises was to protect American workers. His administration is looking more closely at employment visas and has promised to curtail a program that allows non-US students to work here right after graduation. The State Department has a â€Å"renewed emphasis† on being sure that students plan to return to their home country after graduating from US institutions. This change can be seen in the Foreign Affairs Manual, which advises consular officials who are evaluating visa applications. More lenient language for dealing with student applications was taken out last year. According to State Department spokeswoman Ashley Garrius, â€Å"The president’s mandate requires us to rigorously enforce all existing grounds of inadmissibility and to ensure subsequent compliance with related laws after admission.† Although the â€Å"fundamental policy has not changed,† schools state that they are seeing a difference. Indian matriculation at Kent State University this term is 265, down from 1,017 in spring 2016. University of Houston-Clear Lake’s Indian enrollment fell from 1,494 in 2015 to 894 this year. The loss of these full-tuition paying students is causing many schools to reexamine their budgets and their international strategies. They are looking to recruit in more places, rather than depending on India and China to fill their spots. US schools are also facing increased competition in other countries. China has put a lot of money into its own schools recently, trying to keep their students at home. Canadian schools are successfully recruiting foreign students – the University of Toronto’s foreign enrollment is up almost 14% from last year. According to Jake Elsen of Navitas, which helps foreign students matriculate to US schools, â€Å"There’s greater competition from other countries,† and that this is â€Å"compounded by the perception that the US does not value diversity.† Check out Accepted’s Admissions Consulting Services to work one-on-one with your own dedicated advisor. Get the expert advice you need to create an admissions strategy and application that will get you ACCEPTED – no matter where you are and no matter where you’re going! hbspt.cta.load(58291, '4856c9da-9260-42e6-b6ed-f5ac00cf74ce', {}); For 25 years, Accepted has helped applicants gain acceptance to top undergraduate and graduate programs. Our expert team of admissions consultants features former admissions directors, PhDs, and professional writers who have advised clients to acceptance at top programs worldwide including Harvard, Stanford, Yale, Princeton, Penn, Columbia, Oxford, Cambridge, INSEAD, MIT, Caltech, UC Berkeley, and Northwestern. Want an admissions expert  to help you get Accepted? Click here to get in touch! Related Resources: †¢ Fitting In Standing Out: The Paradox at the Heart of Admissions, a free guide †¢ English Language Skills Your MBA Admissions Profile †¢ 10 Tips and Tricks for Acing the IELTS

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Physical Therapy A Career Choice - 1062 Words

Physical therapy is a great career choice, you decide the location of your workplace, the salary/hours are good plus the opportunity to make a difference in a person’s life is another great reason to become a physical therapist. Physical therapists need a doctoral or professional degree, they typically work in private offices and clinics. They diagnose, and manage dysfunction in movement, increase physical/functional abilities. They study each individual and construct a plan using strategies to promote the ability to move. These professionals treat and diagnose all individuals of all ages, that have health issues that limit their ability to move and/or function. They work 40 hours a week(most pt’s) some including evenings and weekends. The career of a physical therapist is a remarkable and challenging career,because one has the possibility of changing the world. The research will describe the career of a physical therapist, what is required to become successful, and the impact this career has on society. Qualifications, any male or female can become a physical therapist if they are of age or completed high school. Pt’s have to be open-minded and patient with all clients. It is required to have a doctor of physical therapy degree, and all states require physical therapists to be licensed. I will prepare myself by taking a physical therapist education class, you will not apply eligible if you don’t graduate knowledgeable, service-oriented, self-assured. To enter aShow MoreRelatedCareer Choices For A Hair Stylist887 Words   |  4 PagesExploring career choices can be one of the most tasking process that one will come upon. During my adolescent years, I wanted to tackle the career of a hair stylist. Years passed by, then it changed to nurse, then psychiatrist, and finally settled to one option I am now most passionate about, physical therapy. Physical therapy captivates me because I yearn to live life to maximum capacity. Not everyone is fortunate enough to live that w ay due to an unforeseen injury. I want to be there for peopleRead MoreInformative Speech About Art Therapy809 Words   |  4 Pageschoose a career and start with pointing out the obvious struggle of finding the right career for them and everyone else. I will also include a personal piece about my experience of struggling to find the right career for me through school so far. CENTRAL IDEA: Art Therapy is not a common career choice when looking at popular jobs in the workforce; however, it is both a very interesting psychological and artistic career. PURPOSE STATEMENT: I want to bring awareness to this interesting career and hopefullyRead MorePhysical Therapy And The Medical Field1624 Words   |  7 Pagesor a physical disability occurred due to an accident or aging, there is someone that can help treat these conditions. Physical Therapists! Physical Therapy is a very rewarding and vital profession in the medical field. The average of all occupations is 11%; According to The Bureau of Labor Statistics, Physical Therapy’s projected job outlook in the years 2012-2022 is projected to triple 36%. (Summary Occupational Outlook Handbook) .There are many specialty areas in the field of Physical Therapy butRead MorePersonal Statement Essay959 Words   |  4 Pagesof our choices. One of the most important choices we must make is the career we select to make our living. From the time I was able to walk I have trained as an elite athlete; swimming and gymnastics were my strong suit. In high school I suffered from an athletic overuse injury of the shoulder that required me to undergo surgery and extensive physical therapy. After learning that I would not be physically capable of performing at the level I desired, I was devastated. My physical therapistRead MoreThe Profession Of A Physical Therapist Assistant1380 Words   |  6 Pagesprofession of a physical therapist assistant. In addition to that it will assist in learning multiple things about a career in physical therapy. Which include the different careers that may surround the PTA profession? The salary ranges. And other geographical locations best suited for this career choice, in addition to that also the growth pat-tern and education needed for this PTA profession. Lastly the type of experience one should gain by building a career in physical therapy. Read MoreMy Research on What It Is and What It Takes to Become a Physical Therapist642 Words   |  3 PagesPhysical Therapy has always been a career that has had me interested in. Physical Therapist are part of the health care profession, which help relieve pain, and increase strength in their patients. Physical therapy has many different areas of specialization. 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While attempting to attain the required physical conditioning, people often take chances with their personal health as they try to stretch their physical limits. Sometimes, people can surpass their current limits and form new boundaries; however, other times people are not so fortunate. These unfortunate times often lead to injury, including workplace accidents, sporting incidentsRead MoreFinding A Career May Be A Physical Therapy1117 Words   |  5 PagesFinding a career may be an imitating approach conversely, it may be the most important factor in the long run. The world offers thousands of various occupations that benefit everyone around them. The occupation I assume would benefit me also others around would be to become a Physical Therapist. Physical Therapists, also abbreviated as PTs, are sharply-intelligent health care providers who educate, rehabilitate, t reat, and prevent their patients from pain in the human anatomy (American Physical TherapyRead MoreI Want to Be a Physical Therapist1409 Words   |  6 PagesPhysical therapy Some say that PT stands for physical therapist; others might say that it stands for physical terrorists. People who say it stands for physical terrorists are usually the people who have been patients before. Patients call it physical terror because in physical therapy you use different exercises that usually will make the area that they are doing the therapy for hurt in order to help it recover to its full range of motion. The career I want to pursue is physical therapy, in order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Global Geopolitics of Fracking in Australia Essay - 581 Words

Geopolitics of Fracking in Australia As Australia’s energy demands rise along with a rising population it is likely that fossil fuel consumption will also rise despite concerns about climate change. This energy demand as well as government debt has seen the start of hydraulic fracturing in Queensland. The development of coal seam gas is to create thousands of jobs while providing a boost to the state’s economy. Many Australian landowners are allowing the fracking on their properties because they will receive income from the well (De Rijke 2013). The decision of the government to commence fracking has been opposed by the wider public. Local governments are virtually powerless to stop fracking as this power lies with the Australian state and†¦show more content†¦But not everywhere is fracking a viable extraction technique. Blackwill and O’sullivan’s paper states, â€Å"The fracking revolution required more than just favourable geology; it also took financiers with a tolerance for risk , a property-rights regime that let landowners claim underground resources, a network of service providers and delivery infrastructure, and an industry structure characterized by thousands of entrepreneurs rather than a single national oil company.† The paper declares that although many countries around the world have the shale gas, aside from the USA and Canada, no other countries have the right industrial environment in order to have hydraulic fracturing expand as rapidly. Political Opposition to Fracking Across the world, protest groups are gaining momentum in the fight against Fracking. Many concerns among the local populations include fears for industrialized landscapes, increased power of multinational enterprises, ground and surface water pollution, food production and general human and environmental health (De Rijke 2013). These are becoming important issues to the general public. The increasing awareness about the dangers of fracking are being told from media sources such as the documentary â€Å"Gasland.† The film directed by Josh Fox, about was nominated for an Academy Award 2011. The documentary is famous for showing tap water burst into flames due to methane gas contamination. To date, fracking has not been very well regulated.Show MoreRelatedU.s. Lng Exportation Policy And The Wto8704 Words   |  35 Pages Consistently Inconsistent: U.S. LNG Exportation Policy and the WTO MICHAEL P. SMITH Efficiency advances in natural gas extraction and development, as well as a shift in global economics, have led to a surge in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) demand in the United States. At the same time, pervasive environmental concerns heighten the stakes for expanding upstream natural gas development and downstream LNG exportation. While

Analyzing Marketing free essay sample

Different definition of marketing and critically analyze them Marketing comes in a wide variety of flavors based on audience, media platform and business in today’s evolving and dynamic marketplace. Therefore, it is no surprise that marketers define what they do differently. Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives. This definition clearly places marketing as a process. Within most organizations this process is managed by the marketing function. Baker (1), Bernard and Brown (2) among others, however, have argued that in addition to being a function, marketing is clearly an organizational philosophy- an approach to doing business. This approach is exemplified by the quote of Professor Stephen Burnett, appearing in the preface to the 6th edition of the influential marketing text by Philip Kotler (3): In a truly great marketing organization you can’t tell who’s in the marketing department. Everyone in the organization you can’t tell who’s in the marketing department. Everyone in the organization has to make decisions based on the impact on the customer. In addition King 4 has criticized too narrow perspective on marketing- confining it to what a â€Å"bolt on† marketing department does- and recommends a broader interpretation of terms. Despite the current levels of interest in defining the domain of marketing, and in particular the function- philosophy debate, few studies have focused on what marketing means. The generally accepted European definition of marketing is given by the Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM). It might be wise to commit this particular definition to memory: Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying consumer requirements profitability. Some writers use the terms ‘need’ and ‘wants’ rather than customer ‘requirement’. Kotler(1991) one of the world’s leading academics in marketing, defines a ‘need’ as a basic requirement such as food, shelter, self-esteem, etc. He defines a ‘want’ as a particular way of satisfy a ‘need’. For e. g, a person may need food, but he or she may not necessarily want beans on toast! A more technical definition is given for marketing by the American Marketing Association: Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives. Although this definition is not as concise as that provided by the CIM, it is more correct, as the CIM definition highlights the ‘profitability’ criterion. To look at marketing as a business philosophy is to take a hostilic view of the discipline. This approach is explained by Peter Drucker (1954): Many people think of marketing only as selling and advertising. And no wonder-everyday we are bombarded with television commercials, Newspaper ads, direct-mail campaigns, and sales calls. However, selling and advertising are only the tip of the marketing iceberg. Although they are important, they are only two of many marketing functions and are often not the most important ones. Today marketing must be understood not in the old-sense of marketing- â€Å"telling and selling†- but in the new sense of satisfying customer needs. If the marketer does a very good job of understanding consumer needs; develops product that provide superior value; and prices, distributes, and promotes them effectively, these products will sell very easily. Thus selling and advertising are only a part of a larger â€Å"marketing mix† – a set of marketing tools that work together to affect the market-place. References (1) Baker, M. J. , marketing an introductory text, 4th edition, Macmillan, london, 1985 (2) Bernard, K. N, â€Å"functional practice and conceptual function-the inherent dichotomy of marketing,† journal of marketing management, vol. 3 no. 1, 1987, pp 73-82. 3) brown, r. j, â€Å"marketing- a functional and a philosophy,† the quarterly review of marketing. vol. 12 nos 3 and 4, 1987, pp 25-30 (4) Kotler. P. C. , Marketing Management, 6th edition, prentice-hall international, 1988 (5) king, s. , â€Å"has marketing FAILED OR was it never really tried,† Journal of marketing management, v ol. 1 no. 1, 1985, pp 1-19 mostaque, a. z, a synthesis model of market orientation for a developing country- the case of Bangladesh, 2003 p17 (6) mcKitterick, JB. 1957, â€Å"what is marketing management concept? † in The frontiers of marketing thought and science frank m. bass, ed. American marketing association, Chicago. pp71-92 (9) Kotler, P. 1998, Marketing Management, Prentice hall, New Jersey (10) Walker et al. (1992) Walker O. C. , Boyd, H. W. and Larreche, J. C. 1992, Marketing Strategy: planning and implementation, Irwin, Homewood, Illinois b) The marketing process- Once the strategic plan has defined the company’s overall mission and objectives, marketing plays a role in carrying out these objectives namely: SWOT and PEST SWOT: SWOT analysis is a straightforward model that analyzes an organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to create the foundation of marketing strategy. Strengths: Reviews the business’ current strengths such as a good brand or strong sales performance. Possible strengths in marketing might be: Specialist marketing expertise, location of business if convenient for customers and the reputation of the brand. Weaknesses: Reviews the business current weaknesses such as poor response times to requests for information or late deliveries. Possible weaknesses might include: lack of a clear product differentiation compared with competing products, inadequate online presence. Opportunities: Reviews the business’ future opportunities like new technology. These factors included the specific opportunities existing within the market that provide a benefit, including market growth, lifestyle changes, resolution of competitors to promote an increase in demand for the products or services. Threats: Threats are similar to weaknesses. A threat in marketing SWOT shows how a company is vulnerable to developments in the marketplace. The primary and ever-present threat is competition. However, other threats can include unsustainable price increases by suppliers, increased government regulation, economic downturns. Swot analysis may help in the creation of a contingency plan that will enable quickly and effectively issues that arise. PEST: A PEST analysis is used to identify the external forces affecting an organization. This is a simple analysis of an organization’s Political, Economical, Social and Technological environment. A PEST analysis incorporating legal and environmental factors is called a PESTLE analysis. Political: The first element of a PEST analysis is a study of political factors. Political factors influence organizations in many ways. Political factors can create advantaged and opportunities for organizations. Economical: The second element of a PEST analysis involves a study of economic factors. All businesses are affected by national and global economic factors. The climate of the economy dictates how consumers, suppliers and other organizational stakeholders such as suppliers and creditors behave within society. Social: The third aspect of PEST focuses its attention on forces within society such as family, friends, colleagues, neighbours and media. Social forces affect our attitudes, interests and opinions. Technological: The fourth element of PEST is technology. Technology advances have greatly changed the manner in which businesses operate. Technology has created a society which expects instant results. This technological revolution has increased the rate at which information is exchanged between stakeholders. A faster exchange of information can benefit businesses as they are able to react quickly to changes within their operating environment. Marketing Strategy An organization’s strategy that combines all of its marketing goals into one comprehensive plan. A good marketing strategy should be drawn from market research and focus on the right product mix in order to achieve the maximum profit potential and sustain the business. It is the foundation of a marketing plan. Segmentation: An organization cannot satisfy the needs and wants of all consumers. Segmentation is simply the process of dividing a particular market into sections, which display similar characteristics or behavior. The company identifies different ways to segment the market and develops profiles of the resulting market segments. There are a number of segmentation variables that allow an organisation to divide their market into homogenous groups. These variables are: Geographic Segmentation: Geographical segmentation divides markets into different geographical areas. It calls for dividing the market into different geographical units, such as nations, states, religions, countries or cities. Climatic differences can lead to different lifestyles and eating habits. In countries with warm climates, social life takes place outdoors and furniture is less important. Demographic Segmentation: Demographics originate from the word ‘demography’ which means a ‘study of population’. It consists of dividing the market into groups based on variables such as age, gender, sexual orientation, family size and so on. Demographic factors are the most popular bases for segmenting customer groups. Customer needs, wants and usage rates often vary very closely with demographic variables. As people’s age change, their needs and wants change. Gender segmentation is commonly used within clothing, hairdressing, cosmetic and magazines. Psychographic Segmentation: Although demographic segmentation is useful, marketers can use alternative segmentation variables which aim to develop more accurate profiles of their target segments. Psychographics segmentation can be broken down into social class, lifestyle and personality. Marketing Mix: The 4ps The marketing mix deals with the way in which a business uses price, product, distribution and promotion to market and sell its product. The marketing is often referred to as the â€Å"Four P’s†- since the most important elements of marketing are concerned with Price, Product, Place and Promotion. Price: Price includes the pricing strategy of the company for its products. How much a customer should pay for a product? Pricing strategy not only relates to the profit margins but also helps in finding target customers. Pricing decision should take into account profit margins and the probable pricing response of competitors. A company’s pricing decisions are affected both by internal and external factors. Product: Product is the actual offering by the company to its targeted customers which also includes value added stuff. Product may be tangible or intangible. It is also defined as anything that is offered to a marketer for attention, acquisition, use or consumption and that might satisfy a want or a need. Product planners need to be thinking about products on 3 levels; the core, the actual and the augmented product. The core product answers the question: what is the buyer really buying? The actual product may have 5 characteristics: quality level, features, styling, a brand name and packaging. The augmented product is the additional services and benefits. Place: Marketing channel decisions are among the most important decisions that management faces. A company’s channel decisions are linked with every other marketing decision. The company’s pricing depends on whether it uses mass merchandisers or high-quality speciality stores. Promotion: Marketing calls for more than just developing a good product, pricing it attractively and making it available to customers. Companies must also communicate with current and prospective customers and what they communicate should not be left to chance. A company’s total marketing communications mix- also called its promotion mix consists of a blend of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations and direct marketing tools. Forms of promotion involves- advertising, personal selling, public relations. The Marketing book, edited by Michael John Baker, Susan J. Hart 6th Ed. Elsevier/ Butterworth- Heinemann 2008 Entrepreneurship Marketing: Principles and Practice of SME Marketing; Sonny Nwankwo 2010 Principles of Marketing, Pearson Custom Business Resources Series; Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, 13th edition, Prentice Hall 2010, Pennsylvania State University http://www. businessdictionary. com/definition/marketing-strategy. html#ixzz2SOetHLCP C) There are different concepts that guide sellers to conduct their marketing activities. For e. g. sellers can only focus on production and try to reduce their cost of production, or focus on improving the quality of product. Similarly they can pay more attention to selling and promotion. In this way different concepts have evolved to help the organization in managing their marketing activities. These concepts are: production, product, selling, marketing and societal marketing. The production concept holds that consumers will favor products that are available and highly affordable. It also refers to the philosophy that supply creates its own demand. It means that the sale will increase automatically with the increase in production and production facilities. This concept is one of the oldest philosophies that guide sellers. The production is still a useful philosophy in two types of concepts. For e. g. if the management is trying to reduce the cost of production then it can do so by increasing the production. With increase in production, economies of scale takes place and the cost of production reduces, which helps to reduce the prices. And the second way it is useful is when demand for a product exceeds the supply. Here management should look for ways to increase production. Another major concept guiding sellers, the product concept states that consumer will favor products that offer the most in quality, performance, and innovative features. Thus, an organization should devote energy to making continuous product improvements. So basically, this concept is about to attract the customers by improving the quality and performance on one hand and on one hand and offer attractive price in other. Some manufacturers mistakenly believe that if they can â€Å"build a better mousetrap†, consumers will beat a path to their door just for their product. The product concept can also lead to â€Å"marketing myopia† the failure to see the challenges being presented by other products. Many organizations follow the selling concept, which holds that consumers will not buy enough of the organization’s products unless it undertakes a large-scale selling and promotion effort. This concept is typically practiced with unsought goods (those that buyers do not normally think of buying) for e. g. burial plots. There is high risk in such marketing because the organizations try to sell the product whether the buyers like it or not. Most studies show that dissatisfied customers do not buy again and this can really spoil the reputation of the organization. There are not only high risks with this approach but low satisfaction by customers. According to marketing concept, organizations should focus to analyze the needs and wants of target market, and provide the desired satisfaction more effectively than competitors do. The marketing concept has been stated in colorful way, such as â€Å"We make it happen for you† (Marnott); â€Å"To fly, to serve† (British Airways). JCPenney’s motto also summarizes the marketing concept: â€Å"To do all in our power to pack the customer’s dollar full of value, quality and satisfaction. † The marketing and selling concepts are often confused. The selling concept takes an â€Å"inside-out† perspective. It starts with the factory, focuses on the company’s existing products, and calls for heavy selling and promotion to obtain profitable sales. It focuses heavily on customer conquest- getting short-term sales with little concern about who buys or why. In contrast, the marketing concept takes an outside-in perspective. It starts with a well-defined market, focuses on customer needs, and coordinates all the marketing activities affecting customer relationship based on customer value and satisfaction. Under this concept, companies produce what consumers want, thereby satisfying consumers and making profits. Many successful and well-known companies have adopted the marketing concept. Proctor amp; Gamble, Disney, Wal-Mart, Marriot, Nordstrom and MacDonald’s follow it faithfully. L. L Bean, the highly successful catalog retailer of clothing and outdoor sporting equipment, was founded on the marketing concept. In 1912, in his first circulars L. L Bean included the following notice: â€Å"I do not consider a sale complete until goods are worn out and the customer still is satisfied. We will thank anyone to return goods that are not perfectly satisfactory†¦ Above all thing, we wish to avoid a dissatisfied customer. † Today L. L. Bean dedicates itself to giving â€Å"perfect satisfaction in every way. † The last concept is the societal marketing concept. It focuses to improve the well-being of customers and society as a whole. It also holds that organizations should determine the needs, wants and interest of target markets. It should then deliver superior value to customers in a way that maintains or improves the customer’s and the society’s well-being. The societal marketing concept is the newest of the five marketing management philosophies. It questions whether the pure marketing concept is adequate in an age of environmental problems, resource shortages, rapid population growth, worldwide economic problems, and neglected social services. According to societal marketing concept, the pure marketing concept overlooks possible conflicts between short-run consumer wants and long-rum consumer welfare. The societal concept calls upon marketers to balance three considerations in setting their marketing policies: company profits, customer wants and society’s interest. Originally, most companies based their marketing decisions largely on short-run company profit. Eventually, they began to recognize the long-run importance of satisfying customer wants, and the marketing concept emerged. Now many companies are beginning to think of society’s interests when making their marketing decisions. marketing in a changing world: creating customer value amp;